GLOSSARY - A
ABSOLUTE is a term given to an essential oil processed by enfleurage or by solvent extraction; the strongest aromatic material extracted from a plant or flower. Contains more than just the volatile fragrance (absolutes contain some of the plant waxes, colorings). The extra substances in the absolute are quite beneficial for treating feminine problems. Also known as essence.
ALCHEMY is both a philosophy and an ancient practice focused on the attempt to change base metals into gold, investigating the preparation of the "universal elixir" and achieving ultimate wisdom involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as making several substances described as possessing unusual properties. The practical aspect of alchemy can be viewed as a protoscience, having generated the basics of modern organic chemistry, namely concerning procedures, equipment ,and the identification and use of many current substances.
ALFALFA is a plant grown for hundreds of years for its superior content of many minerals and vitamins and is considered a tonic and stimulant to restore the nutritional status of skin tissue. Source: extracted from the herb Medicago sativa. Constituents: vitamins K, A, C and minerals Ca, K, Fe, Mg; saponins; coumarins, porphyrins, flavonoids, trace minerals, proteins.
ALOE VERA is one of nature's most healing plants used and praised for thousands of years for its wound-healing and pain-relieving effects. Unlike many other anti-inflammatory substances, Aloe Vera has been shown to stimulate fibroblast and connective tissue formation, stimulate the epidermal growth and repair process presumably due to its polysaccharides. Sources: Aloe Barbadensis (originally from the Arabian Peninsula), and Aloe Ferox (known as Cape Aloe) indigenous to southern Africa. Constituents: Gel: polysaccharides, Latex: anthraquinone glycosides (anthrone, aloe-emodin), aloe resins B, C and D; Polysaccharides: mannose-6-phosphate (acemannan), flavonoids.
ALPHA-PINENE is a terpene that acts as a bronchodilator and supports healthy lung and respiratory function. Studies suggest alpha-pinene possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and the ability to aid memory. It supports healthy immune function, reduces the appearance of blemishes, and rejuvenates skin for a healthy complexion. Sources: alpha-pinene is a monoterpene that occurs in the essential oils derived from plants such as Oman frankincense sacra (65%), frankincense carteri (47%), pine (41%), hinoki wood (23%), helichrysum (23%), spruce (16%), rosemary ct. cineole type (10%), galbanum (9%), niaouli, and wild orange peel.
APOTHECARY is one term for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons, and patients. The modern pharmacist has taken over this role. In some languages and regions, the word "apothecary" is still used to refer to a retail pharmacy or a pharmacist who owns one. Apothecaries' investigation of herbal and chemical ingredients was a precursor to the modern sciences of chemistry and pharmacology. (Source: Wikipedia)
AROMACHOLOGY is the study of the influence of odors on human behavior and to examine the relationship between feelings and emotions such as relaxation, exhilaration, sensuality, happiness and well-being brought about by odors stimulating the olfactory pathways in the brain and, in particular, the limbic system. (Source: Wikipedia.)
AROMATHERAPY means the use of aromas for their healing properties. Restoration of physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health through the application of Essential Oils can also be called Holistic Aromatherapy.
ASCORBIC ACID (Vitamin C) is a general health promoter. It assists with the formation of collagen, the "intercellular glue" that holds the body together. It protects against oxidative stress, pollutants, and drugs and is a natural antibiotic. It is necessary for the correct functioning of the adrenals and thyroid gland, and for healthy teeth, gums, and bones. Sources: Rose hips, citrus fruits, berries, melons, cabbage, parsley, sprouts, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers. Vitamin C is destroyed by air, storage, smoking, cooking, stress.
ATTAR originated from 'itr,' the Arabic word for fragrance or perfume and is made from the distilled essence of floral or other fragrance materials into a wood base (usually sandalwood) and then aged for up to ten years. Source: India and Persia. Constituents: botanicals.
AVOCADO OIL has a distinctive fruit aroma that is somewhat sweet, fatty and nutty all at once. Thick in consistency but can penetrate the epidermis to soften skin and assist in cell regeneration. Used for sensitive skin; corrects dryness and scaling of the skin, wrinkles; sometimes used in sun preparations due to its emollient properties. Source: pressed from the fruit of dried Persea gratissima. Constituents: vitamins A and E; antioxidants: alpha-tocopherol, beta/gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol; phytosterols: beta-sitosterol.
GLOSSARY - B
BEARBERRY is a small and evergreen shrub belonging to the plant order Ericaceae and contains many healthful constituents, such as hydroquinones and arbutin (which reduce skin pigmentation). Bearberry is known to inhibit skin cells to produce melanin pigments by inhibiting the tyrosinase activity by reducing melanin biosynthesis - actually lightens age spots and dark skin areas. Source: extracted from the leaf of Arctostaphylos uva ursi. Constituents: Hydroquinone glycosides (4-15%): arbutin, methyl arbutin. Polyphenols, hydrolyzable tannin, flavonoids (quercetin), resin, acids (ursolic, gallic, ellagic), allantoin, volatile oil (triterpene alkaloids).
BEESWAX is known to lock in moisture, foster cells, and protect skin from damaging environmental factors. Effectively hydrates, softens, and soothes skin and creates a long-lasting collagen-enhancing barrier. Even after processing, beeswax remains biologically active retaining its regenerative, strengthening and protective properties. Source: natural wax produced by honeybees of the genus Apis mellifera. Constituents: esters, hydrocarbons, free fatty acids, reported to contain some vitamin A, which is necessary for healthy cell development.
BERGAMOT is a fruit commonly grown in Italy known to be potentially useful in the topical treatment of improving the appearance of scars and stretch marks, improve blood circulation, help wounds heal faster, and relax nerves and muscles. Source: cold-pressed from the peel of Citrus aurantium var. bergamia. Constituents: a-pinene, myrcene, limonene, a-bergapten, b-bisabolene, linalool, linalyl acetate, nerol, neryl acetate, geraniol, geraniol acetate, and a-terpineol. [Non-skin irritant, strongly photosensitizing, no cumulative toxicity.]
BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE (BCP) is one of more than 30,000 terpenes found in nature and is responsible for the aroma and flavor of essential oils, and recently determined as a dietary cannabinoid with therapeutic potential. Researchers found that BCP found in herbs could potentially play an essential role in the body's complex endocannabinoid system—the system that keeps the body in balance through homeostasis to help support a healthy nervous system and immune function. Sources: BCP is a bicyclic sesquiterpene found in essential oils including basil, copaiba, black caraway, oregano, lavender, rosemary, cinnamon, ylang-ylang, and clove.
BIODYNAMIC agriculture is a method of organic farming that emphasizes the holistic development and interrelationships of the soil, plants, and animals as a self-sustaining system. It highlights the use of manures and composts and excludes the use of artificial chemicals on soil and plants. Methods unique to the biodynamic approach include: an emphasis on integrating farm animals; the cultivation of crops; the care of the land; the use of fermented herbal and mineral preparations as compost additives and field sprays; an emphasis from its beginnings on local production and distribution systems using local breeds and varieties; and the use of an astronomical sowing and planting calendar.
BIOFLAVONOIDS (Vitamin P) strengthens capillaries, prevents oxidation of Vitamin C in the body, and enhances the properties of Vitamin C. Sources: citrus fruit especially the pith, rose hips, green peppers, grapes, apricots, strawberries, black currants, cherries, prunes, buckwheat. Bioflavonoids are destroyed by cooking.
BIOTIN (Vitamin H) is essential in the metabolism of protein and fats. It helps to keep hair healthy and is an antiseptic. Sources: brown rice, bran, soybeans
BIRCH essential oil has historically been used for medicinal purposes, primarily to ease muscular and joint pain as it contains the same active ingredient, methyl salicylate, found in aspirin. Source: pulverized bark of wild harvested Betula pendula Roth by using steam distillation. Constituents: volatile oils contain methyl-salicylates with antiseptic and aspirin-like effects.
BLACK SPRUCE a member of the Pine Family and is considered to be diuretic, expectorant, depurant (purifies the blood and tissues), and tonic. Spruce has an intimate relationship with water and considered useful for “wet” conditions such respiratory, colds, and water-retention with tissue laxity. Source: steam distilled needles of Picea mariana tree. Constituents: monoterpenes alpha- and beta-pinene, delta-3-carene, camphene, alpha-phellandrene, beta-caryophyllene. [Non-skin irritant, non-sensiitzing, no cumulative toxicity. However, some skin sensitization is possible with significant delta-3-carene content, and some additional irritation if the oil is oxidized.]
BORAGE, also known as starflower, is a prevalent culinary herb in Mediterranean countries; contains many important phytonutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are essential for optimum health and wellness, skin and mucous membranes, and to combat free-radicals that play a role in healthy aging. Sources: extracted or pressed leaves, flowers, and seeds (oil) of the Borago officinalis plant. Constituents: pyrrolizidine alkaloids (leaves), choline, mucilage, potassium and calcium salts, tannins, saponins. Fatty acids including omega-6-fatty acids (gamma-linoleic acid).
BULGARIAN ROSE see Rosa Damascena
BURDOCK ROOT has long been used as a blood purifier and diuretic, and help to eliminate toxins from the body and boost overall immunity. It is also known to cleanse the liver and has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Sources: root decoction and tincture of Articum lappa plant. Constituents: lignans, polysaccharides (up to 50% inulin), mucilage, tannins, sulphur containing polyacetylenes, volatile oil (terpenoids), sesquiterpene lactones (arctiopicrin), nutrients (vitamins & minerals), flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives.
BUTCHER'S BROOM is known to enhance blood flow and has been used to relieve water retention, edema (lymph), venous insufficiency, and improve circulation. Chemicals in Butcher's broom have been known to attach to and strengthen the venous system and collagen. Source: root decoction and tincture of Ruscus aculeatus shrub. Constituents: steroid saponins (4-6%): ruscogenin, ruscine, ruscoside, aglycones neoruscogenin, benzofuranes: euparone, ruscodibenzofurane, flavonoids, coumarins, sparteine, tyramine, glycolic acid.
BUTYLENE GLYCOL Hai-Sugarcane BG is a new 100% natural, odorless and colorless Butylene Glycol 1.3 derived from sugarcane. Validated by Ecocert, Sugarcane BG is recommended in the formulation of organic cosmetic products. It is a groundbreaking, versatile base made from carefully chosen plants and a safe alternative to petroleum-derived butylene glycol. (Found in In Fiore Japan Products-only.)
GLOSSARY - C
CALCIUM is the most abundant mineral in the body and found mainly in the bones and teeth and to some extent in the soft tissues. It is essential for normal growth, to keep the heart healthy and for muscle activity. It speeds up healing and is essential for pregnancy and lactation. Calcium is a natural tranquilizer and will calm stressed nerves. Sources: Milk, cheese, yogurt, egg yolk, dark green leafy vegetables, green beans, salmon, sardines with bones, kelp, sesame seeds, almonds, sunflower seeds, figs, prunes. Kale is particularly high, as are dandelion, turnip greens, and parsley.
CALENDULA is one of the most nutrient dense and extremely safe botanicals packed with a full array of potent antioxidants used to address multiple skin problems, stimulate granulation, enhance formation of skin tissue, and promote healing. Calendula is also employed as a lymphatic to stimulate the flow of lymph, address inflamed lymph nodes, and considered a specific for the lymphatics in the breast and pelvic tissues. Source: flowerhead & ray floret maceration and tincture of Calendula officinalis plant. Constituents: flavonoids, triterpenoid & steroidal saponins (oleanolic acid), flavonoids (isorhamnetin & quercetin), xanthophylls & carotenoids, bitter resin (calendulin & caledin), mucilage & polysaccharides, volatile oils, sterols (beta-sitosterol), fatty acids (myristic and palmitic esters).
CARROT oil is the highest source of beta-carotene and one of the most nutritionally rich and leading trophorestorative (restores the optimal nutritional status of tissue). It promotes healthy aging, revitalizes the complexion, and provides high-antioxidant protection for mature and sensitive skins. Source: root maceration of the Daucus carota. Constituents: beta-carotene (vitamin A), alpha-carotene, lutein, lycopene, polyacetylenes, anthocyanins, biotin (vitamin H), vitamin K1 (phylloquinone), potassium, phosphorous, silica, copper, and other trace minerals.
CASTOR oil has been used in ancient Ayurvedic healing methods since 2000 BC as a purgative and to move stagnation. For skin care, it is employed as a healing and cleansing agent to draw out impurities and unblock congested pores and is well known for its ability to fade dark spots due to acne and aging. Source: cold pressed seed of Ricinus communis plant. Constituents: ricinoleic acid (up to 95%), oleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, a-linoleic acid, linoleic acid, di-hydroxystearic acid.
CHOLINE & INOSITOL are members of the B complex family and work together as part of lecithin and are essential for proper fat metabolism. Lecithin is necessary for the synthesis of DNA and RNA. It reduces excessive deposits of fat and cholesterol in the liver and arteries and is essential for healthy nerves. It also regulates liver and gallbladder. Sources: lecithin, egg yolks, green leafy vegetables, unprocessed whole grains, citrus fruits, nuts.
CHROMIUM is essential for the function of insulin, enzymes, and hormones. It helps to metabolize cholesterol, utilize sugar and synthesize heart protein. Sources: whole grains, mushrooms, green peppers, broccoli, grapes, oranges, and cheese.
CO2 EXTRACTS are obtained by pressurizing carbon dioxide until it becomes a liquid. The liquid carbon dioxide then acts as a solvent on the natural plant matter and the essential oil content then dissolves in the liquid CO2. The CO2 is then brought back to its gaseous state and what is left is the resulting oil. No trace of a harmful solvent remains in the final product, and heat damages none of the constituents of the oil.
COLD-PRESSING is used mainly to prepare fixed oils derived from fruit, nuts, and seeds; and Essential Oils derived from citruses, such as bergamot, orange, lemon, and tangerine. One method involves rolling the fruit over sharp projections that puncture the oil glands. The fruit is then pressed to remove the oil, which is washed off with a fine spray of water. The oil is separated from the water by rotating the oil and water mixture at a very high speed. No chemicals or heat are used in this process maintaining all of the vitamins, minerals, enzymes, vital nutrients, and natural pigment.
COLEUS FORSKOHLII is a tropical perennial plant often used in Ayurveda to treat skin conditions. Today it is employed in skincare for its ability to activate cAMP accumulation known as a “second messenger” that impacts biological processes responsible for cell communication and translating cellular processes. Source: root extract of Coleus forskohlii. Constituents: diterpenoids (labdane; forskolin/coleanol).
COLLAGEN is what holds our cells together and is our most important structural protein that makes up our connective tissues. There are several (15 or more) forms of collagen in the body, and it comprises 25% of the proteins found in our bodies, and is a part of all our organs, arteries, veins, skin, ligaments, tendons, bones, and marrow. Collagen works together with elastin (another structural protein) to maintain connective tissue flexibility or elasticity. Collagen is destroyed by inflammatory processes. Essential to collagen formation and health are antioxidant anthocyanidins (found in dark red/purple fruits) and vitamin C.
COMFREY is used in topical formulations as an emollient and protective agent for cracks, bruises, swellings, insect bites; and indicated in the treatment of poorly healing skin aggressions due to its high presence of allantoin. Comfrey is well documented to stimulate granulation and employed in therapy for scar reduction and tissue regeneration and is one of the most favorite herbs for the topical treatment of persistent leg ulcers and varicosities. Source: root & leaf decoction, maceration, and tincture of Symphytum officinalis plant. Constituents: alkaloid (pyrrolizidine—root only), mucilage, gum, tannin, triterpenes, silicic acid, phenolic acid (caffeic, rosmarinic, chlorogenic), allantoin, asparagine, choline, chlorophyll (higher in leaves, Ca, K+, P, trace minerals, vitamins A and C).
COPPER is a trace mineral needed for the formation of hemoglobin, a key component of red blood cells. It facilitates iron absorption, helps the body oxidize vitamin C and metabolize protein. It is needed for proper bone formation and the production of RNA. Copper is also involved in the production of collagen and the protective covering that surrounds nerves. It is an essential part of enzymes that act as antioxidants. Sources: unprocessed whole grains, green leafy vegetables, fresh fruits, legumes, almonds, mushrooms, cherries, and seafood such as lobster, crab, and oysters.
GLOSSARY - E
ECHINACEA is a general tonic, immuno-modulator & immuno-stimulatory, and lymphatic, detoxifier. It is used in skincare to stimulate immune function and improve resistance to skin stressors and promote repair of tissue damage. Source: dried root & aerial part decoction, tincture, and maceration of Echinacea angustifolia plant. Constituents: glycosides (caffeic acid derivatives: echinacoside, iso-chlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cichoric acid), polysaccharides (inulin), glycoproteins, aminds (alkamides), volatile oils, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, alkaloids (pyrrolizidine saturated type).
ENFLEURAGE is a process of extracting perfumes by exposing absorbents to the exhalations of flowers.
ESSENTIAL OIL the term "Essential" applies to the essence or fragrant part of the plant, was coined by the alchemist Paracelsus (1493-1541), which equates to spirit—the personality or extract of something that retains the qualities of the original substance. Essential oils are also referred to as the "life force" or "blood" of the plant. Scientifically, Essential oils are complex mixtures of naturally occurring chemicals that have a multi-faceted role within the plant.
EVENING PRIMROSE OIL contains high amounts of essential fatty acids of which GLA, is the main active compound. The most important actions of EFAs are related to their roles in the structures of membranes and regulating numerous aspects of cellular activity, improved circulation and elasticity, and maintaining the integrity of the water impermeability barrier of the skin. Source: cold-pressed seeds of Oenothera biennis plant. Constituents: linoleic (70–74%) and γ-linolenic (8–10%) acids, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid.
GLOSSARY - F
FLAVONOIDS is a term to describe all polyphenolic plant constituents found in leaves, fruits, and flowers. They are water-soluble and act as pigments imparting color to fruits and flowers and play a significant role in plants as growth regulators and to protect the plant from UV radiation by scavenging free radicals produced by the photosynthetic electron transport system. In the body, they have a wide range of benefits as potent antioxidants. Source: Hawthorne, Marigold, Gingko Biloba, Green/Black Tea, Chamomile, Turmeric, Red Clover, Hops.
FLUORINE or Calcium fluoride is the fluorine found in nature, not the fluoride added to water supplies which are sodium fluoride, a waste product of aluminum smelting and a cumulative poison. Fluorine is essential for the health of bones and teeth, it is a natural antiseptic and protects against infections. Sources: Sunflower seeds, milk, cheese, carrots, garlic, tannin tea, green vegetables, and sea water.
FOLIC ACID (B9) functions as a co-worker with B12, it is needed to produce red blood cells and is essential for healthy skin and hair. It builds antibodies to prevent and heal infections, and aids in protein metabolism. Folic acid is necessary for the production of DNA and RNA, the nucleic acids that carry hereditary patterns and is destroyed by heat, light, storage, oxygen and the contraceptive pill. Folic acid is essential for the function of the five oil-soluble vitamins A, D, E, F, and K. Sources: Deep green leafy vegetables, broccoli, asparagus, lima beans, sprouts, wheat germ, nuts, mushrooms, dates, tuna.
FRANKINCENSE is a well-known remedy for rejuvenating the complexion and elasticity for toned, awakened skin. Its microcirculatory activating and cicatrising properties help to reduce the look of wrinkling and scarring, making marking from acne, stretch marks, and surgeries less noticeable. Source: hydrodistilled resin of Boswellia carterii. Constituents: alpha-pinene (47.6%), beta-pinene, limonene, myrcene, para-cymene, sabinene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-phellandrene, alpha-thujene, delta-cadinene.
GLOSSARY - G
GERANIUM is a very crucial essential oil because of its unique balancing and harmonizing properties which act powerfully upon the neuroendocrine system—to integrate the nervous and endocrine systems. It exerts an astringent action and offsets fluid stagnation, such as fluid retention, edema, overactivity of sebaceous glands, varicose veins, and considered to be a lymphatic and circulatory stimulant. Source: steam distilled leaves & tops of Pelargonium graveolens. Constituents: citronellol (26%), geraniol, iso-menthone, guaia-6,9-diene, geranyl formate, linalool, alpha-pinene, geranial, neral, limonene. [Non-skin irritant, non-sensitizing, no cumulative toxicity.]
GINGER releases vital energies in the body. It increases the flow of saliva and is a stimulating tonic for the digestive system, reduces cramping and gas, and is indicated for nausea-induced motion sickness. Topically, ginger promotes peripheral circulation and helps detoxify the body from toxins. Source: distilled fresh rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Constituents: terpenes, oleoresin, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds (gingerol & shogaol), gingerols (zingerone & paradol). [Non-skin irritant, but potentially skin sensitizing so avoid use on face, no cumulative toxicity.]
GOTA KOLA is a revitalizing herb that strengthens nervous system function and memory. It is a balancing tonic that brings stimulation and blood circulation, while being a relaxing nervine to other areas of the body. It is used in skin conditions to promote collagen formation and increasing antioxidant levels within the skin in early stages of tissue repair. Source: dried aerial parts of Centella asiatica plant. Constituents: triterpenoid saponins (asiaticoside, madecassoside, brahmoside), nutrients (vitamins K & B, Na, Ca, Mg) amino acids, flavonoids (quercitin, kaempferol), volatile oils, alkaloids, bitter principle.
GRAPE SEED OIL is an ecologically sound product that is made from the seeds of grapes after the wine is pressed. There is no need for hybrid or genetically engineered crops, nor does it require new farmland, crops or water to produce. Grape seed oil has positive effects on acne partially due to its content of polyphenols, and ability to lower inflammatory stressors, and clean out the pores while nourishing the cells to help maintain healthy skin. Source: extracted and cold-pressed seeds of Vitis vinifera. Constituents: linoleic acid (66-75%), PUFA, oleic acid, MUFA.
GLOSSARY - H
HELICHRYSUM is indigenous to the Mediterranean and coastal regions of Europe where decoctions, infusions or fomentations of the herb have long been used to treat edema, headaches, including migraines, liver and gall bladder, and digestive disorders. The essential oil is considered a specific for shock, fear, lethargy, nervous exhaustion, anxiety, insomnia, depression, moodiness, emotional repression, problems with inner identity, rigidity, deeply-ingrained negativity, difficulty incarnating spiritually, varicose veins, sluggish circulation, lymphatic congestion, improve the appearance of scars, acne, and acne rosacea and regulates the flow of Chi. From a psychospiritual perspective, helichrysum removes obstacles to self healing. Source: steam distilled flowering tops of Helichrysum italicum.
HINOKI WOOD Source: steam distilled plantation grown, susutainable Chamaecyparis obtusa wood. Constituents: alpha-pinene (23%), delta-cadinene(10%), alpha-cadinol (7%), limonene.
GLOSSARY - I
INCI International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients is a system of names for waxes, oils, pigments, chemicals and other ingredients and cosmetics based on scientific names and other Latin and English words. In the U.S., under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, certain accurate information is a requirement to appear on labels of cosmetic products. Ingredient names must comply by law with EU requirements by using INCI names.
GLOSSARY - J
JASMINE, the Flower of Knowledge, has a permeating warmth and purity and is known as the harmonizer or mother in our blends—guiding and encouraging nutrients to full incarnation into tissues where they can exert their formative influence. A mood enhancer and antidepressant remedy, its scent is beneficial in the restoration of energy, optimism, and confidence, and is an essential remedy in the soothing of dry, irritated, or sensitive skin, Jasmine restores moisture and radiance to dehydrated complexions. It is also often used in the treatment of stretch marks or scarring, and, in low concentrations, for alleviating skin aggressions, especially when they are related to stress. Source: maceration, decoction, and solvent extraction of flowerheads and petals of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum, sambac, and auriculatum—harvested before dawn. Constituents: benzyl acetate (25%), benzyll benzoate (16%), isophytol (9%), phytol acetate (9%), phytol (8%), linalool, e,e-geranyl linalool, e-jasmone, (e,e)-alpha-farnesene.
JOJOBA Source: cold pressed unrefined seeds of Simmondsia Chinensis plant. Constituents: gadoleic acid (65-80%), erucioc acid (10.20%), oleic acid (5-12%).
GLOSSARY - L
LALBDANUM is an oleoresin exuded from a flowering shrub native to the Mediterranean and used extensively in perfumery as a fixative and for its deep, rich, sweet persistent ambergris-like tone and tenacity. Source: solvent extracted oleoresin of wild grown Cistus ladaniferus shrub. Constituents: diterpenes, labdanolic acid.
LAVENDER is a member of the Labiatae family and is considered harmonizing, sedative, antispasmodic, and a stimulant to treat poor capillary circulation, headaches, muscular aches, and pains, swelling, cellulite, and scar tissue formation. Source: maceration, decoction, and steam distillation of the flowering tops of Lavandula angustifolia and officinalis. Constituents: linaool (42%), linalyl acetate (41%), lavandulyl acetate, limonene, beta-caryophyllene, trans-beta-farnesene. [Non skin-irritant, non-sensitizing, no cumulative toxicity.]
LEMON is noted for its alkalizing, stimulating and decongestant/drainage properties, making it a powerful cleanser and refresher. It exerts a clarifying effect and enhances the movement of blood and lymph through stimulation, and indicated for tired, congested, devitalized skin, acne, broken capillaries, and brown spots. Source: maceration and decoction of the dried peel of Citrus limonum fruit. Constituents: limonene (60-71%), gamma-terpinene (9%), beta-pinene, citral, geranial, neral, citronellol. [Somewhat skin irritant, non-sensitizing, mildly photosensitizing, no cumulative toxicity.]
LEMONGRASS is one of the greatest circulatory and lymphatic stimulants and activates all aspects of capillary and lymphatic congestion and swelling. It is considered useful for mental fatigue (including morning fatigue), poor concentration, jet lag, sluggish circulation, tired feet and legs, muscle aches, lack of muscle tone, and weak connective tissue (especially elastin). Source: steam distilled fresh or partly dried grass of Cymbopogon citratus, flexuosus, and pendulus planst. Constituents: monoterpenoid aldehydes (60-86%) including citral, geranial, neral, citronellal; farnesol, limonene, myrcene, terpineol, borneol, geranial, nerol. [Somewhat skin-irritant and possibly sensitizing so avoid use in facial applications.]
LIMONENE (D-limonene) is a terpene, and an aromatic compound found in the peels of citrus fruits and other plants and is what lends their sweet, uplifting aroma. It is a potent antioxidant and is considered beneficial for boosting immunity, fighting infections, destroying free-radicals, alleviating stress and anxiety, and improve sleep patterns. Topically, d-Limonene is known for its capacity for high penetration, particularly appreciable in the skin, which is why it is referred to as an ‘enhancer.’ The enhancing power of d-limonene carriers other molecules unable to cross epithelial barriers—the first-line defense in innate immunity and preserving the integrity of environmental interfaces. Sources: orange, lemon, mandarin, lime, grapefruit, tangerine, and many essential oils.
LINALOOL is a terpene alcohol that occurs in nature and found in more than two hundred different species of plants. It is an important constituent of many essential oils, as well as cannabis and some fungi. It is what lends lavender its distinct flavor and powerful scent, as well as its popularity as a sleep aid, relaxant, and anxiety treatment. Linalool is linked to the production of Vitamin E, making it an essential terpene in support of healthy skin and body functioning. Sources: bergamot, patchouli, lavender, lemongrass, frankincense, myrrh, and several essential oils.
GLOSSARY - M
MANDARIN, RED dates back thousands of years to traditional Chinese medicine and is known for its mild, calming and restorative effects. Mandarin essential oil has been known to be useful in helping to reduce acne, brighten the skin, alleviate insomnia, reduce oily skin, diminish the appearance of scars, age spots, and stretch marks, minimize stress and wrinkles, and stimulating the lymphatic system. Source: cold pressed from the peel of fully ripened, mature fruits of Cirtus reticulata. Constituents: limonene (72%), gamma-terpinene 18%), alpha-pinene, myrcene, beta-pinene.
MAGNESIUM is known s the relaxant element "Nature's tranquilizer." It is necessary to activate enzymes for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. It helps the utilization of vitamin C, D and E, fats, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium. It is important for healthy muscle tone, healthy bones and a healthy heart. It regulates the acid/alkaline balance and prevents the build up cholesterol in the body. Sources: kelp, oil-rich seeds and nuts -particularly almonds, rye, millet, barley, green leafy vegetables -particularly kale, endive, celery, beet greens, alfalfa, figs, grapefruit, oranges, coconut, goat's milk, egg yolk, soy beans, molasses, seafood, and bananas.
MANGANESE is one of the essential trace elements needed for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Known as the "love mineral" because animals will not suckle their young if deficient in manganese. It is important for the healthy nerves, normal reproduction and the production of milk.
Sources: seeds, nuts, wheatgerm (unheated), legumes, buckwheat, green leafy vegetables, oranges, grapefruit, apricots, peas, kelp, egg yolk, nasturtium leaves and dried fruits.
MARSHMALLOW ROOT is a demulcent—meaning it soothes damaged or inflamed surfaces. The herb protects mucous membranes and inflamed tissues, and gives additional help in healing of wounds by protecting against infection and stimulating cell growth. Source: leaves and root of Althea officinalis plant. Constituents: mucilage and polysaccharides (pectin), tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, calcium oxalate, amino acids (asparagine).
MARULA OIL is high in antioxidants and oleic acid that promotes skin hydration and smoothness, prevents trans-epidermal water loss, and enhances blends with its exceptional oxidative stability. Source: cold press kernels from the Sclerocarya birrea tree. Constituents: oleic acid (70-80%), palmitic acid (9-12%), stearic acid (4-8%), linoleic acid, arachidic acid, eicosenoic acid.
MATERIA MEDICA is a Latin term for the body of collected knowledge about the therapeutic properties of any substance used for healing. The term derives from the title of a work by the Ancient Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century AD, De materia medica, 'On medical material'. (Source: Wikipedia)
MYRRH is an oleoresin that has been integrated into traditional herbal balm where it is classified as a remedy for increasing circulation, stimulate capillary circulation, a restorative, tonic, and to conduce a general sense of warmth and increased vigor. Myrrh is specifically indicated for a general sense lack of strength and physical weakness or lack of energy with weak inefficient capillary circulation, cold skin, weak pulse, and deficient circulation. Source: steam distilled oleo-gum resin of wild grown Commiphora myrrha. Constituents: iso-furanogermacrene (curzerene), myrrh-214 + lindestrene, beta-elemene.
MUCILAGE or mucilaginous herbs derive their properties from the polysaccharides they contain. They have a ‘slippery,’ mild taste and swell in water, producing a gel-like mass that can be used to soothe and protect irritated tissues, such as dry, irritated skin or inflamed mucous membranes. All plants produce mucilage in some form to store water as hydrates and as a food reserve, for seed dispersal & germination, and as a membrane thickener and stabilizer. Source: Marshmallow, Mullein, Slippery Elm, Plantain, Fenugreek, Comfrey.
GLOSSARY - N
NEROLI is distilled from the flowers of the bitter orange tree and has specificity for mature, dry devitalized skin, and loss of skin elasticity. It is a rejuvenating oil useful to prevent scar tissue, promote a smoother skin, combat acne, fighting stretch marks, and broken capillaries. Source: steam distilled flowers of Citrus aurantium amara. Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, a-terpinene, nerol, neryl acetate, farnesol, geraniol, linalool, nerolidol, linalyl acetate, methyl anthranilate and indole.
NETTLE increases urine output and increases the removal of uric acid. The diuretic action makes it useful in the treatment of edema, lymph, and swelling, strengthens and supports the whole body and plays an essential role in the chronic and degenerative condition of the musculoskeletal system such as gout, joint and muscle pain. Source: aerial, radix, seeds of Urtica dioica. Constituents: (Leaf) acids (carbonic, caffeic, chlorogenic, formic, silicic, citric, fumaric, malic, oxalic, succinic), Amines (ach, betain, choline, lecithin, histamine, serotonin), lignans, flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), Nutrients (Vitamins A, B2, B5, C, K+, Ca+, silicon), chlorophylls a and b, dietary fiber & protein, nitrates, sterols, tannins, glucoquinones. (Root) Polysaccharides, lectin, lignans, coumarins, triterpenes, sterols, tannins, phenolic acid.
GLOSSARY - O
ORANGE BLOSSOM ABSOLUTE prized for its intensely sweet, vibrant, and warm characteristics reminiscent of orange orchards in bloom on a warm summer evening in Northern Morocco. When diffused as a fragrance material, it carries the same delightful freshness that closely resembles the aroma of fresh blossoms. It provides a warm floral heart note and adds depth and tenacity in Oriental blends and with the lighter Neroli essential oil. Source: solvent extracted absolute of Citrus aurantium amara flowers. Constituents: linalool (20-50%), linalyl acetate (10-20%), farnesol (5-10%), nerolidol, limonene-d, geraniol.
ORANGE, SWEET is high in limonene and known for both its soothing and detoxifying properties and increasing circulation to the skin's surface, and potential help in reducing and improving the appearance of acne. Source: cold pressed peel of Citrus sinensis. Constituents: limonene (96%), myrcene, alpha-pinene, linalool.
ORRIS BUTTER is prized as a fixative and base note in high-end natural perfumery. It has a delicate, sweet, warm, powdery-floral aroma reminiscent of violet flowers with mellow woody undertones. Source: steam distilled rhizomes of Iris pallida, from rhizomes that have been in the ground for three years, then dried and aged for three more years. Constituents: mystric acid, gamma-irones.
OUD, also known as Agarwood, is an ancient and sacred oil, sometimes referred to as 'liquid gold'. It is mentioned in the Bible, the Koran, Upanishads and stories of the Buddha and said to carry one's prayers to the heavens. The wood of Agar smells quite ordinary. Its provocative scent emerges only when the tree emits a healing sap in response to the attack of fungus causing the bark to turn a brownish-black color. When this occurs, the distilled wood becomes intensely rich and fragrant. The darker the wood, the more it is prized. Source: steam distilled Aquilaria crassna wood. Constituents: beta-caryophyllene.
GLOSSARY - P
P.A.B.A. (Para Amino Benzoic Acid) promotes growth and prevents graying of hair in combination of Pantothenic acid, choline and folic acid. It is essential for healthy skin and ban be used for sunburn. It has been used to treat vitiligo, which are smooth white patches on the skin. Sources: egg yolks, milk, yogurt, whole grains, wheat germ, molasses. It is synthesized by friendly bacteria in healthy intestines.
PANGAMIC ACID (Vitamin B15) increases the body's tolerance to insufficiant oxygen, and protects against carbon monoxide and other pollutants. It regulates fat metabolism, stimulates the glandular and nervous system, and protects the liver. Is helpful in heart disease, elevated blood cholesterol, impaired circulation and premature aging. It also stimulates immune response. Vitamin B15 us used extensively by athletes to improve performance, as it reduces muscle fatigue. Sources: vitamin B15 can be synthesized within the body. Whole grains, brown rice, all seeds, nuts, wheat germ, wheat grass.
PANTOTHENIC ACID (Vitamin B5) stimulates the adrenals, increases the production of cortisone, and protects against physical and mental stress, toxins, premature aging, infection and radiation. Sources: whole grain breads, cereals, green vegetables, egg yolks, beans, legumes, mushrooms, cauliflower, broccoli, royal jelly, peanuts, crude molasses.
PATCHOULI Source: steam distilled dried leaves of Pogostemon cablin. Constituents: patchouli alcohol (28%), alpha-bulnesene (17%), alpha-guaiene 14%), alpha-patchoulene, beta-patchoulene, pogostol, patchoulene.
PEPPERCORN, PINK Source: steam distilled dried fruits of Schinus molle. Constituents: alpha-phellandrene (23%), myrcene (22%), limonene (7%), beta-phellandrene (7%), alpha-pinene, beta-caryophyllene.
PHOSPHOROUS is known as the light bearer. It works closely with calcium. A balance of 2.5 parts of calcium to 1 part phosphorus is needed for both minerals to function properly. It is needed for building bones and teeth, to utilize carbohydrate, fats and proteins, and to keep the heart beat regular and to maintain the acid/alkaline balance. It is also important for healthy nerves and efficient mental ability. Sources: seafoods, milk, eggs, kelp, whole grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, dried fruit.
POMEGRANATE Source: CO2 total extract of Punica Granatum seed dried from organic farming. Constituents: fatty oil with more than 60% punicic acid, conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA), tocopherols, sterols, and a small amount of squalene.
POTASSIUM is known as the electrical element. It is involved in the optimum functioning of the nervous system. Potassium and sodium work together to regulate the water balance in the body. It prevents over acidity and stimulates the kidneys to eliminate toxins. It nourishes muscles and is important for a healthy heartbeat. It promotes secretion of hormones and stimulates the endocrine glands. Sources: kelp, rice bran, dried and fresh bananas, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, sunflower seeds, potatoes -especially the peel, seeds and nuts, parsley, avocados, yogurt, cantaloupe, mushrooms, and tomatoes
PYRIDOXINE (Vitamin B6) is a natural diuretic and assists in the use of amino acids helping to convert protein to energy. It is necessary for the normal functioning of the central nervous system, and is required for the absorption of B12, the production of hydrochloric acid and adrenal gland function. It metabolizes essential fatty acids that form important hormones, regulates blood glucose levels, forms red blood cells and produces antibodies. Sources: raw milk, egg yolk, tuna, salmon, white-meat chicken and turkey, bananas, avocado, wheat germ, whole grain cereals, prunes, sunflower seeds, soy beans, kidney beans, dried apricots, raisins, legumes, fish, green leafy vegetables, green pepper, potatoes, carrots, peanuts.
GLOSSARY - Q
QUASI-DRUG is a unique product classification in Japan. A quasi-drug is defined in Japan as products that minimal or moderate pharmacologic activity but are restricted in use to specific indications. Quasi-drugs in Japan include categories of products that are often described as drugs, cosmetics, or Over-the-Counter (OTC) products in other regions. Products in this class include some energy drinks, vitamin preparations, hair tonics, bath preparations, skin whitening products, acne products, antidandruff shampoos, toothpaste, hair dyes, and many others. These products are considered borderline medicinal products, which are categorized differently in various markets.
GLOSSARY - R
ROSE, BULGARIAN Source: solvent extracted absolute of Rosa damascena flowers. Constituents: phenylethyl alcohol (59%), n-nonadecane (9%), geraniol (8%), citronellol (6%), nerol (3%), eugenol, benzyl alcohol.
ROSE HIP Source: CO2 total extract of Rosa canina fruit and seeds dried from organic farming. Constituents: (Fruit) fatty oil with high content of unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic acid (40-60% omega-6), alpha-linolenic acid (20-40% omega-3), oleic acid (14-20% omega-9), small amounts of stearic and palmitic acid, sterols, tocopherols, and carotenoids. (Seeds) fatty oil with high content of unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic acid (41-59% omega-6), alpha-linolenic acid (20-35% omega-3), oleic acid (12-22% omega-9), small amounts of stearic and palmitic acid, tocopherol, carotenoids.
ROSEMARINIC ACID is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound known to interact on different ways against carcinogenesis, tumor cell proliferation, inflammation, and exert powerful antioxidant properties. In olives, polyphenols contribute to give a bitter taste to olives and act as astringents. Sources: herbs such as rosemary, sage, basil, oregano, and melissa.
ROSEMARY has antioxidative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties and is employed as both a preservation system to prevent oxidation of fatty oils, carotenoids, and essential oils, and in skin care for its antioxidant protection, combat free-radicals, and anti-aging properties. Source: CO2 total extract of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves dried from organic farming. Constituents: 7-10 % antioxidative reference compounds: phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnososl calc. as carnosic acid with > 6 % of carnosic acid.
GLOSSARY - S
SAFFRON is a perennial stemless herb of the Iridaceae family and widely cultivated in Iran and other countries such as India and Greece, contains active anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenger compounds effects that promote the diffusivity of oxygen in skin tissues. Saffron extract is also chemopreventive and showed protective effects on genotoxins-induced oxidative stress. Source: steam distilled and CO2 total extract of Crocus sativus stigmats. Constituents: volitile agent safranal, bitter principle picrocrocin, pigment crocetin, glycoside crocin.
SANDALWOOD Source: steam distilled heartwood of Santalum album (India) and austrocaledonicum (New Caldonia) and other varietals. Constituents: (Z)-alpha-santalol (up to 55%), (Z)-beta-santalol (up to 24%), (Z)-lanceol, (trans)-alpha-bergamotol, epi-beta-santalol.
SEA BUCKTHORN is high and beta-carotene and vitamin E and contains bioactive substances that are known to protect against UV rays and radiation, promote healing and tissue regeneration, restore skin tissue, enhance immune activity and disease resistance of tissue, and destroy free radicals, and help reduce the damaging effects of sun radiation. It can effectively combat wrinkles, dryness, and other symptoms of malnourished or prematurely aging skin. Source: CO2 total extract Hippophae rhamnoides berries and pulp dried from organic farming. Constituents: (Fruit) palmitic acid (28-38%%), palmitoleic acid (10-20%%), oleic acid (6%), vaccenic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linoleic acid, and unsaponifiable ingredients such as carotenoids, alkanols, sterols, tocopherols. (Pulp) fatty oil with 30 - 40 % palmitic acid (C16:0), 22 - 33 % palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and 1 - 7 % of unsaponifiable ingredients with high content of sterols, carotenoids, alkanols and tocopherols.
SELENIUM helps protect red blood cells from accumulating hydrogen peroxide, a type of free radical produced by leukocytes that can destroy cells. It works closely with vitamin E protecting cells for oxidative damage. It is a natural antioxidant and preserves the elasticity of tissue and slows down aging. Sources: the selenium content of food depends on the extent of its presence in the soil. Organically grown foods, garlic, mushrooms, milk, eggs, brazil nuts and sunflower seeds. More reliable sources are sea foods such as oysters, mackerel, kelp, halibut, tuna, and flounder.
SILICON is known as the "beauty or magnetic mineral" and is found in muscles, hair, nails, connective tissue, teeth skin and cellular walls. Silicon is the surgeon in the body and combines with fluorine to build strong bones and tooth enamel. It draws toxins from the body and is important for the health and sheath that surrounds and protects the nerves. Sources: asparagus, barley, oatmeal, strawberries, sprouts, celery, nuts, carrots, spinach, figs. fish, grapes, apples, eggs, burdock root, chickweed, cleavers, nettles, horsetail, oat straw.
SODIUM is known as the youth element because it keeps joints soft and supple. It is closely associated with potassium in maintaing the acid/alkaline balance, regulating body fluid, keeping muscles healthy and nerves stimulated. It is necessary for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Sources: kelp, olives, red pepper, beet greens, celery, parsley, carrots, figs, cucumbers, lentils, romaine letter, watermelon, asparagus.
SULFUR is the foundational mineral of all beauty. It plays a major role in bile fluid, the brain, connective tissue (collagen), hair, liver, nails, pancreas, and skin. Sulfur is generally considered to be the 8th or 9th most abundant mineral in the body. It is stored in every cell in the body, and is especially concentrated in the joints, hair, skin, and nails. Adequate sulfur intakes has a great deal to do with a beautiful complexion, mineralized hair, and glowing skin. Sulfur is an essential component of all connective tissue. Connective tissue supports and connects all the internal organs. collagen is the protein found in the connective tissue, and also in the bones and teeth. Sulfur rich collagen is the most common protein in the body. Collagen retains fluid and provides elasticity and flexibility to the tissues. Sources: arugula, blue-green algae, bee pollen, cabbage (spicy), broccoli, brussel sprouts, garlic, hemp seeds, horseradish, kale, cauliflower, mustard leaves, onions, pumpkin seeds, radishes, spirulina, watercress.
SUNFLOWER OIL specially cultivated to produce an oil high in monosaturates, is stable and resistant to rancidity, and is naturally high in vitamins A, D & E, lecithin and Omega 9. The high oleic content makes it a good oil for cell regeneration and is highly useful in the treatment of mature or damaged skin. Source: cold pressed from seeds of Helianthus annuus. Constituents: 80% oleic acid.
GLOSSARY - T
TANGERINE Souce: cold pressed peel of Citrus reticulata. Constituents: limonene (92%), gamma-terpinene, beta-myrcene, raw aldehyde, octanal.
TURMERIC root is a vital herb in Ayurvedic medicine, which considers it to be a systemic cleanser and digestive aid. The fresh rhizomes are crushed and mixed with water, and this “juice” is taken in spoonful doses internally, and the aqueous extract is added to bathwater to treat various skin disorders. In modern science, turmeric has become a highly esteemed medicinal substance for its curcumin content—a potent antioxidant agent which has been shown to exert a wide range of therapeutic actions including protection from free-radical damage, protecting the liver from a number of toxic compounds, and reduction of platelet clumping [thus aiding the free circulation of blood]. Curcumin also helps break down fats and protects the liver by stimulation of its detoxification pathways, free-radical scavenging, and stimulation of bile secretion. Its primary skincare advantage is for use in addressing skin aggressions due to itching and acne rosacea. Source: CO2 total extract Curcuma longa rhizome dried from organic farming; and Curcuma xanthorrhiza roots dried from organic farming. Constituents: 70-90 % essential oil containing mainly alpha- and beta-turmerone and ar-turmerone; alpha-phellandrene, alpha-zingiberene, sesquiphellandrene, traces of curcumin.
TROPHORESTORATIVE is a herb that is a nutritive restorative. It is normally associated with an affinity for an organ, or an organ system. It rectifies the deficiency or weakness pertaining to that organ. The effect is not necessarily temporary. The nourishment it provides results in a permanent restoration. Sources: Oats, Panax ginseng, calendula, carrot, chickweed, gotu kola, horsetail, hawthorne, bilberry, mullein, licorice, meadowsweet, milk thistle, dandelion root.
GLOSSARY - V
VANILLA Source: CO2 total extract of Vanilla Planifolia beans dried from organic farming. Constituents: natural vanillin (11-13%), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, vanillic acid, lipids.
VETIVERT steam distilled root of Vetiveria zizanioides. Constituents: vetiverol (20-50%), isoeugenol, d-limonene, linalool.
VITAMIN B12 "The Red Vitamin" is essential for the production and regeneration of red blood cells. It prevents pernicious anemia and promotes growth in children. B12 aids the body in utilization of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. It keeps the nervous system healthy.
Sources: meat, free range eggs, fish, fermented food, natural yogurt, soy beans, seaweed, sunflower seeds, kelp, bananas, pollen.
VOLATILE OILS (VO) are extracted from plants to produce essential oils and are some of the most important medicinally active plant constituents. They are complex mixtures of more than 100 compounds made up of high levels of monoterpenes & sesquiterpenes and widely used in aromatherapy. Stimulant and nervine herbs rich in volatile oils often affect the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems and are commonly used as teas, infused in oils, or incorporated as foods. Used topically, volatile oils tend to stimulate the tissues when they come into contact.
GLOSSARY - WXYZ
YLANG YLANG Source: steam distilled flowers of Cananga odorata. Constituents: germacrene D (25%), (E,E)-alpha-farnesene (23%), (E)-caryophyllene,methyl benzoate, benzyl benzoate, linalool, benzyl salicylate, methyl benzoate, alpha-pinene, 1-8-cineole.
ZINC is important for the absorption of B vitamins and linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid that helps keep skin healthy. It is a component of insulin and is part of the enzyme needed to break down alcohol. It is essential for the growth and development of the reproductive glands. Zinc is also important to speed up the healing process. It protects the body from lead and cadmium and is a good defense against the common cold.
Sources: pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, sprouts, eggs, nuts, oysters, green leafy vegetables, and lima beans.